Materials that find applications in energy harvesting, nonlinear optics, and other strategic sectors have been receiving enormous attention lately owing to their significance for emerging global high technologies. Among several classes of materials, the perovskites of ABX3 (X = O) compositions have featured in many frontiers of research, nonlinear optics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and self-powered electronics (i.e. using piezoelectric energy harvesting). Additional functionalities and structural flexibilities for these perovskite materials have been achieved by introducing organic cations at the A sites and other anions, such as halides (Cl–, Br–, and I–), azides (N3–), cyanides (CN–), are also employed at the X sites.
The combined effects of the individual compositions at the perovskite A, B, and X sites have a profound influence on the modulation of their physical properties, thereby endowing them with functional properties such as ferroelectricity, two-photon absorption, magnetism, along with unique mechanical and thermal properties such as energy harvesting.
Organic ferroelectrics due to their low cost, easy preparation, light weight, high flexibility and phase stability are gaining tremendous attention in the field of portable electronics. International team of scientists proposed the synthesis, established structure and investigated ferroelectric behavior of a two-component ammonium salt, containing a bulky [Bn(4-BrBn)NMe2]+ (Bn=benzyl and 4-BrBn=4-bromobenzyl) cation and tetrahedral (BF4)− anion. A notable peak-to-peak output voltage of 20 V, maximum current density of 1.1 μA cm−2 were recorded for the 15 wt% -TPU composite device. Furthermore, the voltage output generated from this device was utilized to rapidly charge a 100 μF capacitor, with stored energies and measured charges of 156 μJ and 121.6 μC, respectively.
Accordingly, presented device is an excellent energy harvesting piezoelectric, and as such is a significant milestone in the development of less-toxic all-organic composite materials for wearable electronics.